Each year, an estimated 12,820 women in the United States will be diagnosed with some form of cervical cancer. Approximately 4,200 women die from the disease each year, and more than a quarter of a million women will live with the disease each year. While the numbers can be daunting, when detected early, 91 percent of those diagnosed with cervical cancer will survive.
Long-lasting infections with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause almost all cases of cervical cancer. Normal cells of the cervix can gradually develop pre-cancerous changes. These cells do not suddenly change into cancer. Instead, the normal cells of the cervix first gradually develop pre-cancerous changes that may turn into cancer.
The two main types of cervical cancer are squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma and represent the vast majority of cancer of the cervix. Only some of the women with pre-cancers of the cervix will develop cancer, and it may take several years for cervical pre-cancer to change to cervical cancer. For most women, pre-cancerous cells will go away without any treatment, but others will have their pre-cancers turn into invasive cancers.
Detecting and treating all cervical pre-cancers may prevent true cervical cancers. The Pap test (or Pap smear) and the HPV test may prevent cervical cancer by detecting pre-cancers before they can turn into an invasive form of cancer. During the past several decades, screening has reduced deaths from cervical cancer by finding the cancer early and treating it or preventing it from developing.
For women it can be very hard not to be exposed to HPV. Passed from one person to another during skin-to-skin contact with an infected area of the body, HPV can be spread rapidly and easily.
Available vaccines can protect against infection with the HPV subtypes most commonly linked to cancer. These vaccines help prevent pre-cancers and cancers of the cervix. The vaccines require a series of injections and may cause some mild side effects. The most common are is short-term redness, swelling, and soreness at the injection site.
The American Cancer Society recommends vaccinations for girls and boys beginning at age 11 or 12. HPV vaccination is also recommended for females 13 to 26 and males between the ages of 13 and 21. Vaccination at older ages is less effective in lowering cancer risk. No vaccine provides complete protection against all cancer-causing types of HPV, so routine cervical cancer screening is still recommended.
For more than 25 years, Gettysburg Cancer Center has been committed to providing cancer care in a community-based setting close to home. A leader in Oncology care across the region since 1989, Gettysburg Cancer Center’s cancer team provides screening and treatment options to women across York and Adams County.