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Finding New Solutions in the Fight Against Cancer Through Research

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While the most overt cancer research news usually comes from efforts to derail the progression of the deadly disease, research into the development of alternative pathways to finding an ultimate solution to cancer often go unnoticed or fail to receive the same level of notice among the public. Advances are being made in new techniques to improve the effectiveness of traditional treatment protocols, the utilization of non-traditional or culturally specific treatment methods or identifying dietary or physical behaviors that may lead to increasing or decreasing the risk factors associated with cancer.

An innovative new treatment for an aggressive form of blood cancer has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. According to Mounzer Agha, Director of the Mario Lemiuex Center for Blood Cancers at Hillman Cancer Center, the cell based therapy produced a 51 percent remission rate among patients with a strain of lymphoma that didn’t respond well to traditional chemotherapy or radiation. “There was no treatment that could possibly put them into remission, so to get a 50 percent remission rate with this kind of treatment is a major accomplishment,” Agha said. This is a breakthrough for patients and physicians, according to Agha. The treatment is customized to each individual’s immune system. “This type of therapy represents a paradigm shift in the treatment of blood cancer and it will completely change the landscape of how we approach and treat blood cancers in the future,” he said.

In oriental medicine, treatment using acupuncture needles has been commonly practiced for thousands of years in the fields of treating musculoskeletal disorders, pain relief, and addiction relief. Recently, it has emerged as a promising treatment for brain diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, nausea, and vomiting, and studies are under way to use acupuncture to treat severe diseases. A research team lead by Professor Su-Il In, through joint research with Dr. Eunjoo Kim of Companion Diagnostics & Medical Technology Research Group at DGIST and Professor Bong-Hyo Lee’s research team from the College of Oriental Medicine at Daegu Haany University, has published a study showing that the molecular biologic indicators related to anticancer effects are changed only by the treatment of acupuncture. The research was published in the online edition of Scientific Reports, the sister journal of the globally renowned academic journal Nature. Professor Su-Il In said, “This research, which combines nanotechnology and oriental medicine technology, is a scientific study that shows the possibility of using acupuncture as a method to treat severe diseases such as cancer.”

For decades researchers have known that dietary issues can often be a factor in the incidence of cancer. In a paper published in the journal Nature Communications, researchers from VIB, a life sciences research institute, and Vrije University in Brussels found that a compound in sugar stimulates aggressive cancer cells and helps them to grow faster. Led by Johan Thevelein, a microbiologist with VIB, this research builds on what scientists already knew about the Warburg effect, where cancer cells rapidly break down sugar for energy and to fuel for further growth. While the research identifies a link between sugar and the aggressiveness of cancer cells, it doesn’t mean that eliminating sugar from one’s diet will eliminate the likelihood of getting cancer. “We have no evidence of this effect happens in healthy people,” Thevelein says, but “Reducing sugar intake during cancer treatment might help the system to overcome the cancer and it might facilitate the action of chemotherapy because it’s difficult to kill the cancer cells if they’re always activated [by sugar],” he says. “Providing sugar to cancer cells carries a greater risk of stimulating their aggressiveness.”

In Queensland, Australia scientist Georgia Chenevix-Trench has uncovered an additional 72 genetic markers that can indicate an increased likelihood that a patient may be more susceptible to getting cancer in their lifetime.  The discovery may lead to the development of a more definitive predictive test for breast cancer in women.

While most of us hope for quick and all-encompassing cure for cancer, the complexity and the infinite variety of cancer types indicate that a single solution is more than unlikely. The ultimate solutions will come from a combination a multitude of treatments and advances in early prediction and detection.

Gettysburg Cancer Center is actively involved with a consortium of doctors offering clinical trials for patients seeking alternative solutions and therapies.  For more information on the current clinical trials available, visit http://gettysburgcancercenter.com/patients/clinical-trials/.

Gene Therapy. A New Frontier in Medical Innovation

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Cancer is a disease that is experienced by young and old and by every economic and social segment of the world populace. At some point in everyone’s life, cancer will affect us individually, a member of our family or one or many of our friends and acquaintances. The American Cancer Society projects there will be 1,688,780 new cancer patients and 600,920 deaths due to cancer in 2017, for a disease that does not discriminate by race or national origin.

Cancer is where abnormal cell growths form in the body and interfere with normal, healthy body functions. Not new to the world stage, cancer dates back to ancient times. Today, after millennials of research and discovery, new treatments for a vast array of cancer types are being studied, many with promising results.  One such new treatment called chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy (CAR-T) involves taking samples of T-immune cells called T-cells from a patient, genetically engineering them, and putting them back in to fight the cancer. Co-developed with the drug giant Novartis, the therapy, CAR-T, genetically alters a patient’s own immune cells to target and destroy cancer cells.

“We’re entering a new frontier in medical innovation with the ability to reprogram a patient’s own cells to attack a deadly cancer,” said FDA Commissioner Dr. Scott Gottlieb. The process takes about 22 days and begins with the extraction of a patients T cells, exposing them to the vector which genetically transforms them. They’re then expanded and frozen for shipment back to the patient. During the out-of-body processing of the cells, the patient receives chemotherapy to wipe out any remaining T cells to avoid interference with the, soon to be, newly implanted cells.

“This is a major advance, and is ushering in a new era,” said Malcolm Smith, a pediatric oncologist at the National Institutes of Health. The treatment appears to strengthen a patient’s immune system allowing their own body to fight the cancer. The treatment is recommended for cancer patients who have run out of options for traditional therapy. The new therapy is only currently available for patients 25 years or younger. Thus far, 83 percent of patients are experiencing positive survival results.

While overtly touting the success of gene therapy, researchers are tempering their enthusiasm after experiencing some significant life threatening side effects in 47 percent of the studies participants. These side effects have resulted in brain swelling and deaths, casting a shadow over the field. Seizures and hallucinations were also relatively common, but temporary. Though concerning, the side effects have been successfully managed with drugs. Quality control and how to standardize the potency and purity of living cells extracted from each patient are also a concern. Because of the risks, the treatment is only currently available at 20 US hospitals. The individualized nature and relatively small patient population both drive up the cost of the treatment for now.

“This is a big paradigm shift, using this living drug,” says Dr. Kevin Curran, a pediatric oncologist at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center that will soon be offering the treatment. “It will provide a lot of hope. This is the beginning.”

“The approval of CAR T-cell therapy for pediatric leukemia marks an important shift in the blood cancer treatment paradigm,” says the American Society of Hematology. “We now have proof that it is possible to eradicate cancer by harnessing the power of a patient’s own immune system. This is a potentially curative therapy in patients whose leukemia is unresponsive to other treatments and represents the latest milestone in the shift away from chemotherapy toward precision medicine. Today’s approval is the result of over a decade of hematology research, including research funded by the National Institutions of Health (NIH).”

The Best in Cancer Care Across the Community

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Healthcare and access to quality healthcare is a critical issue for individuals whether healthy or recently diagnosed with a life-threatening illness.  Most patients have experienced a private medical practice being merged into a large healthcare system and often don’t understand how that will impact their care.

While large specialized health centers can promise to offer the most advanced techniques, facilities and methods, they are usually located in large urban centers, often miles and driving hours from the patient’s home, requiring long and physically taxing commutes for frequent treatments. Although staffed with caring and competent professionals these mega centers can often feel overly clinical and crowded, giving the patient a sense of being just another number among many.

The best and most advanced treatment and care is becoming less centralized, allowing for advanced specialized care to be available within the patient’s own community, providing ease of care access and reducing the personal stresses often accompanying cancer therapy.

Gettysburg Cancer Center (GCC) has been a leader in Oncology Care in the Adams County region since 1989. For more than 25 years, the highly regarded and vastly experienced medical specialists have been committed to providing cancer care in a community-based setting close to their patient’s home. The all-encompassing oncology and hematology programs provide a complete range of diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care in an environment that recognizes the importance of treating not only the disease but the individual person behind the disease.

With Medical Oncology, Radiation Oncology, Diagnostic Imaging, access to the latest clinical trials as well as an onsite laboratory and pharmacy, Gettysburg Cancer Center truly offers comprehensive cancer care. Their compassionate and experienced staff takes pride in providing the best possible care and personal assistance to their patients and their patient’s families. Dr. Satish Shah, Principle Medical Oncologist and Hematologist at GCC says, “Our mission is to provide individualized treatment, utilizing the best technical approach.  We focus on providing the best treatment in the right environment so that our patients can focus on getting better.”

To learn more about how GCC’s is helping their cancer patients, click on http://gettysburgcancercenter.com/about-us/testimonials/.

October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month Around the World

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Billed as the most common cancer in women, breast cancer is impacting the lives of one in eight women in the United States. The second leading cause of cancer death in women after lung cancer, breast cancer most commonly occurs in women 50 years of age and older. Breast cancer is caused by a genetic mutation in the DNA of breast cancer cells but how or why this damage occurs isn’t fully understood. Some mutations may develop randomly over time, while others are inherited or may be the result of environmental exposures or lifestyle factors. More than 3.5 million women are living in the U.S. with a history of breast cancer.

Early detection remains the most important factor in the successful treatment and survivability of breast cancer. Caught early when known treatments have the best chance of success, breast cancer is survivable. Successful treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and immunotherapy. “Risk factors include being female, obesity, a lack of physical exercise, drinking alcohol, hormone replacement therapy during menopause, ionizing radiation, early age at first menstruation, having children late or not at all, older age, and family history.” With the clear lack of knowledge for its causes, early detection of the disease remains the cornerstone of breast cancer control.

National Breast Cancer Awareness Month (NBCAM) was founded in 1985 by the American cancer Society and what is now known as AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals. Held each October, the event is an attempt to increase the awareness of breast cancer and to aid the solicitation of funds for research and treatment of the disease. NBCAM unites cancer organizations around the world in providing information and support for those suffering from the cancer. Breast Cancer Awareness is represented by the display of pink ribbons, first introduced by the Susan G. Komen Foundation at its New York City race for breast cancer survivors in 1991.

The effort by so many to bring worldwide attention to the disease appears to be having a positive impact. A new report from the American Cancer Society finds that death rates from breast cancer in the United States have dropped 39% between 1989 and 2015. The overall declines in breast cancer death rates have been attributed to both improvements in treatment and early detection by mammograms. The American Cancer Society recommends women find breast cancer earlier when treatments are more likely to be effective. While there is a lack or definite agreement on when and how often screening is most effective, The National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommends annual screening beginning at age 40.

The professional team of oncologists and staff at Gettysburg Cancer Center supports the efforts of Breast Cancer Awareness Month in its world-wide goal to provide the latest information, research, treatment options and support for those who suffer from breast cancer.

Cancer Research: Not Always an Exact Science

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It is the question most frequently asked of doctors by patients who have just received a diagnosis of cancer, “Why me?” It is usually asked by those who thought they were living a healthy lifestyle and had little expectation of receiving the devastating news. Others may have been aware of near or distant family members who had a form of cancer.

While much progress has been made in the effort to understand multiple forms of cancer and the development of effective treatments, the answer to why some people get the disease and others do not remains predominately an elusive mystery. Cancer is known to be caused by changes, or mutations, to the DNA within cells that can cause the cell to stop its normal function and may allow a cell to become cancerous. Some faulty genes that increase the risk of cancer, known as inherited cancer genes, and genes that increase the risk of cancer called cancer susceptibility genes can be passed on from parent to child. But most of genetic mutations appear to occur after birth and aren’t inherited.

Environmental influences such as smoking, radiation, viruses, persistent exposure to cancer-causing chemicals (carcinogens), obesity, hormones, chronic inflammation and a lack of exercise has been proven to provide a more definitive answer to the “Why Me?”. Even with this accepted knowledge, some people who share one or more of these environment factors appear to avoid a cancer diagnosis altogether.

Why do some cancers spread and kill patients, while many remain docile?  Seeking the answer to this question has researchers redirecting their approach for answers from why some get cancer to why so many do not. Ruslan Medzhitov, an Immunobiologist at Yale, says “You can inject the same virus into different hosts and get vastly different responses.”

Diagnosis and treatment becomes art and science. Researchers continue to develop and identify predictive tests based on gene mutations and patterns of gene regulation.  These tests assist in targeting the right therapies and treatments for each patient.  Research related to the micro-environments in which the cancer lives and spreads will provide beneficial to the prevention and early detection of cancer.

The field of oncology remains focused on a holistic approach factoring in the environment, genetic factors, and physiology, in the hopes of finding a concrete, science based answer to the “Why Me?”

To learn more about the clinical trials and research that Gettysburg Cancer Center offers its patients, click here.

Targeted Radiation Therapy Effective For Breast Cancer Patients

A new cancer research project funded by the United Kingdom is revealing some very positive results for breast cancer patients. The study (IMPORT LOW trial), led by The Institute of Cancer Research, London and the Cancer Research UK Cambridge Centre indicates that breast “cancer patients who received radiotherapy targeted at the original tumor site experience fewer side effects five years after treatment than those who have whole breast radiotherapy, and their cancer is just as unlikely to return.” The results which were recently published in The Lancet, an independent, international weekly general medical journal. “This approach could spare many women significant physical discomfort and emotional distress,” says Professor Arnie Purushotham, Cancer Research UK. “One of the challenges when treating early stage breast cancer is trying to minimize the side effects that can have a real impact on a woman’s life, without affecting the chances of curing her.”

The study included more than 2,000 women aged 50 or over who had early stage breast cancer that was at a low risk of coming back. Radiation therapy or radiotherapy uses ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells. A common and effective treatment for breast cancer for many decades, large field radiotherapy is relatively painless in its application, but often the treatments produce side effects that range from low, short term to more severe, long term in nature. Depending on the intensity of the radiation, higher doses can cause varying, acute side effects for months or years following treatment. The nature, severity, and longevity of side effects depend on a number of treatment factors and the individual patient.

Precisely targeted radiation therapy can eradicate all evidence of disease in patients with cancer that has spread to only a few sites. Because radiation destroys cells, targeting the treatment to specific cancer cells limits the collateral damage to areas not affected by the cancer, reducing the side effects suffered by the patient.

The IMPROT LOW trial found that women who received partial radiotherapy reported fewer long term changes to the appearance and feel of their breast, than those who had radiotherapy to the whole breast. Dr. Charlotte Coles, Reader in Breast Radiation Oncology at Cambridge University, chief investigator for the trial and first author of the publication, said, “We started this trial because there was evidence that if someone’s cancer returns, it tends to do so close to the site of the original tumor, suggesting that some women receive unnecessary radiation to the whole breast. Now we have evidence to support the use of less, but equally effective, radiotherapy for selected patients.”

The technique, delivered by standard radiotherapy equipment, may lead to increased use of this treatment at cancer centers across the country and around the world. Professor Judith Bliss, scientific lead for the study within the Clinical Trials and Statistics Unit at The Institute of Cancer Research, London, said: “We’re delighted that the results of this trial have the potential to lead to a real change in the way selected breast cancer patients are treated.”

Gettysburg Cancer Center is actively working with researchers on clinical trials, providing alternative treatments for its patients. For more information on clinical trials at Gettysburg Cancer Center, click here.

The Importance of Connecting Patients with Clinical Trials in Cancer Research

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Clinical Trials are at the heart of medical research and are critical to finding new paths to prevent, detect and advance new treatment methods and medications for debilitating diseases. Patients with an illness or disease participate in Clinical Trials in order to receive the benefits of the newest treatment options for recovering from their disease and to offer the best opportunity for researchers to find better treatments for others in the future. Treatments may involve new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe and may also investigate other aspects of patient care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses.

Providing information to patients, who have been diagnosed with a serious disease, about the specifics and availability of important Trials that may be of benefit to them is proving to be challenging.  ClinicalTrials.gov is a registry and results database of publicly and privately supported clinical studies of human participants being conducted around the world and currently lists 247,989 studies with locations in all 50 States and in 201 countries. But accessing, understanding and utilizing this important data can be difficult and challenging for the average patient undergoing the emotional and physical experience of a recent diagnosis.

Former FDA commissioner Dr. Robert Califf recently delivered a talk, “Finding the Right Balance in Learning about Therapies”, at a conference in New York City. In his address he said, “Our country is experiencing an unprecedented divergence of health outcomes that mirrors gaps in wealth and education…wealthy, highly educated people are benefiting from information that allows them to lead longer, more functional lives, while others are suffering. The clinical trials enterprise has gone awry,” he said. “It’s become unnecessarily expensive, cumbersome and arcane” In his opinion the system has become so costly and onerous that most of the important questions go unasked. “Doctors are heavily conflicted between patients and the institutions they work for,” says Dr. Robert. “The rosy view that doctors and patients are discussing all options and making the best decisions flies in the face of all evidence.”

The research and pharma industry is attempting to create new pathways to connect patients with the data and, most importantly, help them understand which clinical trial is best for their particular disease. The “Innovation and Clinical Trial Tracking Factbook 2017”, is an Assessment of the Pharmaceutical Pipeline listing the thousands of new drugs currently under trial across the U.S. and around the world. VitalTrax taps into a global database of clinical trials and ultimately organizes the complex web of information into a platform that allows patients, physicians, caregivers, and families to search for relevant trials in relevant locations – in a language they can understand.

Zikria Syed, CEO of VitalTrax says his company is taking an “Open Table” approach to enrolling patients in clinical trials. “We’re making a big bet on the fact that patients would appreciate tools that put the information, and an ability to learn about clinical trials and enroll, in their own hands.”

In smaller communities around the country local oncology providers are shortening the gap of distance and time for patients seeking the benefits of clinical trials. At the Gettysburg Cancer Center (GCC), Clinical Trials are available to patients who want to participate in this important process. The localized opportunity voids the often long drive to large regional healthcare centers for Trial participants and enhances the patients understanding of the technical and practical elements of the process in a personalized but highly qualified environment.

GCC, a leader in Oncology Care across the Central Pennsylvania region since 1989, is actively involved in providing the latest in clinical trials to their patients throughout their community.

“No One Fights Alone”

Receiving a cancer diagnosis is a shocking experience even for those in more advanced life stages. It is a situation that most of us fear at some point in our lives. However, for those that receive a diagnosis at an early age when transitioning from adolescents to young adulthood, the ability to cope and process the significance of the news must be particularly challenging.

As a teenager in 2015, Chandler Banko’s was diagnosed with advanced, stage 2 Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. An athletic and seemingly healthy seventeen year old, Chandler’s news that he had cancer wasn’t made any easier to understand by knowing that the most common age of diagnosis of this cancer is between 20 and 40 years of age.

Hodgkin lymphoma, also known as Hodgkin’s disease, is a type of cancer affecting the lymphatic system which occurs “when the lymph node cells or the lymphocytes begin to multiply uncontrollably, producing malignant cells that have the abnormal ability to invade other tissues throughout the body.” Generally more common in males than females, the exact cause of Hodgkin lymphoma is not known. Nearly 574,000 people reported having the cancer in 2015, a disease which presents in about 2 percent of the Nation’s population. Because of progress in treating Hodgkin lymphoma, most people with a diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma will be long-time survivors. For those under twenty, the survival rate is 97 percent.

A positive and outgoing personality, Chandler found help and treatment at the Gettysburg Cancer Center in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. There he found experienced professionals who are dedicated to treating not only the science of his disease but the personal emotional conditions that often accompany a cancer diagnosis and regiment of treatment. “My experience with GCC was way beyond my expectations” Chandler says in his testimonial video. “They never failed to support me and made sure I kept fighting”.

Chandler, his family and friends established a trust fund for the purpose of paying his unreimbursed medical expenses as well as support for education expenses. A student at nearby Mount Saint Mary’s University in Emmittsburg, Maryland, Chandler is active as a personality at the Universities WMTB Mount Radio as he pursues a degree in Cyber Security and Business. All while holding down a job at a local sports apparel shop.

Recently the “Ladies” at Gettysburg Cancer Center gifted him a bunch of balloons in celebration of his 20th birthday. They all surprised him during a follow-up appointment by singing Happy Birthday. “Love these people!!!” said Chandler.

Looking back on his fight to survive his cancer, Chandler speaks of his experience. “If I had one thing to take away from this past year, it’s to never turn back and keep looking forward. To everyone who walked with me, fought with me, prayed for me and supported me, thank you. Today, I am officially done with everything pertaining to my fight. I completed my final surgery and I am proud to say: I am clear, I am healthy and I am moving on. I can now focus on living my life and enjoying everything it gives me. Life can be short, life can throw you around…. but it all depends on how you take those negatives, and build yourself up.”