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What is Your Cancer Stage and Why is it Important to Know?

 

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One of the many new terms that patients hear when receiving a cancer diagnosis is “stage”. Along with a long list of other medical terminology used by caregivers to describe cancer, the stage of cancer is used to describe the level at which the cancer has progressed. The stage of cancer will determine where the disease is located, if or where it has spread, what other parts of the body it may have affected, and the patient’s estimated survivable rate. The stage is the most credible indication of the cancer’s progression at a given period of time and is determined by patient procedures and tests such as physical examinations, imaging scans, biopsies, blood tests, surgery or other genetic testing. Even though this is extremely important information, nearly half of the patients diagnosed with cancer in the past two years are unaware of their disease’s stage.

The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) recently released the latest edition of its cancer staging manual with new and updated staging for many types of cancer. Most cancer treatment centers started using the updated manual on January 1, 2018.

The specific stage of cancer can be determined by tests conducted prior to diagnosis or after a surgery has been performed. It can provide answers to questions concerning the size of the primary tumor, whether it has spread to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body and if the cancer is more or less likely to spread. The cancer’s stage will help determine the specific course of treatments, establish the likelihood of recovery, the estimated time to recovery and permit the patient to develop a roadmap for the challenges that lie ahead.

Most types of cancer have four stages:

  • Stage 0 is the stage that best describes cancer that is still located in the place it started and has not spread to nearby tissues. This stage of cancer is often highly curable, usually by removing the entire tumor with surgery.
  • Stage I cancer is usually a small cancer or tumor that has not grown deeply into nearby tissues. It also has not spread to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body and is often referred to as early-stage cancer.
  • Stage II and Stage III refers to larger tumors that have grown more deeply into nearby tissue and those that may have spread to the lymph nodes but not to other parts of the body.
  • Stage IV indicates that a cancer has spread to other organs or parts of the body and is sometimes called advanced or metastatic cancer.

Understanding your cancer stage will provide critical insight on your future treatment options, the time and direction of recovery and ultimately your likelihood for survival. It is important to be informed about all aspects of your disease so that you can be an active and well-informed participant in your own care.

A Cancer Diagnosis Does Not Mean Life is Over

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In life it has been said that there are truly no absolutes. With time, all things change, nothing is forever the same. It is an outlook filled both with prospects of hope and dread but singular in its certainty. “Just when I think I have learned the way to live, life changes”, said Hugh Prather, author, lay minister, and counselor.

No one ever wants to be told they have cancer. The emotions of that moment cannot be fully understood until you have experienced it. For those born decades ago when such news brought little more than a prognosis of certain death, the diagnosis can elicit strong emotions of remorse, anger and depression. The lifetime probability of being diagnosed with cancer is 39.7% for men and 37.6% for women. “There is no denying that cancer is devastating news, but it does not mean your life is over. Millions of people cope with cancer every day. You are not alone.”

For Catherine, in 1999 and at age 31, life was good. Married with a good career, her life appeared to be tracking in a mostly positive direction. An examination to ferret out an explanation for a few minor health problems brought news that her life was about to change forever. Triple negative breast cancer wasn’t even known in 1999. The only certainty after the news was she needed chemotherapy as well as surgery and radiation to stem the progress of the disease. “My memories of that period in my life are that of anxiety underpinning and coloring everything I said and did,” says Catherine. “I was at a very low ebb at this stage and my family weren’t sure how we could overcome this, as all of us were flailing around trying to make sense of this terrible period in our lives.”

Planning a normal future beyond the cancer diagnosis is pre-empted by the promise of months or even years of invasive treatments, drug protocols, clinical trials and the accompanying continuing life-maintenance issues. Taking out the trash, mowing the lawn and getting the kids to soccer practice suddenly takes on a different perspective and position in life’s scale of importance. However, planning for and visualizing a future can be the very act that can assure and expedite recovery. After fourteen years, Catherine received news that her cancer was out of remission.

“I figured that this must be the beginning of the end as I was lucky to get nearly fourteen years remission. This time around, I was told my tumor was triple negative breast cancer. I was horrified and terrified on reading the statistics. I could not think past a month at a time, and holidays and family events were all abstract events. Again my mind went into a tailspin as I tried to deal with my worst fear. I then realized I probably had triple negative breast cancer before but didn’t realize how aggressive it was back in 1999 and I survived. What is not to say that this can happen again?” She is approaching her 50th birthday and no longer thinks of the future. “I have opened myself to all possibilities and am letting life happen. One of my goals was to start blogging once I felt well again and hopefully bring hope to some of my fellow triple negative breast cancer survivors.”

As a teenager in 2015, Chandler Bankos was diagnosed with advanced, stage 2 Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. An athletic and seemingly healthy seventeen year old, Chandler’s news that he had cancer wasn’t made any easier by knowing that the most common age of diagnosis of this cancer is between 20 and 40 years of age. A positive and outgoing personality, Chandler found help and treatment at the Gettysburg Cancer Center in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. There he found experienced professionals who are dedicated to treating not only the science of his disease but the personal emotional conditions that often accompany a cancer diagnosis and regiment of treatment.

Chandler speaks of his year-long experience with cancer treatment. “If I had one thing to take away from this past year, it’s to never turn back and keep looking forward. To everyone who walked with me, fought with me, prayed for me and supported me, thank you. Today, I am officially done with everything pertaining to my fight. I completed my final surgery and I am proud to say: I am clear, I am healthy and I am moving on. I can now focus on living my life and enjoying everything it gives me. Life can be short, life can throw you around,but it all depends on how you take those negatives, and build yourself up.”

For Catherine and Chandler, cancer diagnosis didn’t mean their lives were over. Through all the pain of treatment and the turmoil it brought, they moved forward in their belief that a new life of joy and accomplishment was just beyond the struggle against their disease.

Limit Exposure to Harmful Ultraviolet Rays to Lower Your Risk of Skin Cancer

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The most common type of cancer diagnosed each year in the United States is skin cancer. Most skin cancers are the result of too much exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet rays. In recent decades people have become aware of the cause and have taken steps to avoid over exposure to harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun or from tanning beds and tanning lamps.

There are three types of skin cancer.  Basal cell carcinoma, the most common type of cancer, presents itself as a recurring and sometimes bleeding sore.  Squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common type of skin cancer, begins in squamous cells (thin, flat cells) that are most commonly found in the tissue on the surface of the skin. Neither of these skin cancers spread to other parts of the body and can generally be successfully treated with surgery, radiation or topical chemotherapy.

Melanoma, which originates from pigment-producing skin cells (melanocytes), is the least common but potentially deadliest form of skin cancer. Melanomas can develop anywhere on the skin, but are often present on areas of the body which receive the most exposure to sunlight. The National Cancer Institute estimates about 87,110 new melanomas were diagnosed in 2017.

Some people are more prone to melanoma than others; those with fare skin tone and high freckle density, red or light-colored hair and those with a family history of the disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that around 60,000 early deaths occur each year worldwide because of excessive exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) radiation. An estimated 48,000 of these deaths are from malignant melanoma. Early detection can be difficult but regular inspections of the skin for alterations in appearance can detect signs of the disease. Look for skin changes, such as a new spot or mole or a change in color, shape, or size of a current spot or mole; a skin sore that fails to heal or becomes sore of painful to the touch, or a lump that looks shiny, waxy, smooth, or pale. Others may bleed or appear ulcerated or crusty to the touch.

Melanomas that are undetected and untreated will spread to other parts of the body and may become life threatening if not caught and treated in the earliest stages. Surgery is often the first approach. Lesions and surrounding tissue are removed, and a biopsy is taken to determine if the cancer has spread into the lymph nodes. In less common cases, chemotherapy or immune therapy is warranted.

The Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has recently approved the drug nivolumab for stage III melanoma. An adjuvant therapy for stage III melanoma, studies have indicated that the immunotherapy delayed recurrence of the disease with fewer side effects.  Awny Farajallah, MD, head of U.S. medical oncology for Bristol-Myers Squibb, says, “We’re very excited about the approval of adjuvant nivolumab. To date, 71 to 85 percent of stage III patients will have a recurrence, and this gives us an important additional option to bring those numbers down. Adjuvant therapy is an important part of our efforts to advance cancer treatment through immuno-oncology, with the ultimate goal of providing a potential cure.”

As with all cancers, lessening exposure to the risk factors is the best plan of action. Avoid sun burns. Wear clothing that protects exposed areas of the body. Use sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 20-30 and a 4 or 5-star UV rating. If you have a job that exposes you to constant sunlight, take all available precautions to minimize your exposure.

The Importance of Taking Care of the Caregiver

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For cancer patients, receiving a diagnosis is often a time of fear, stress and trauma. The fear of the unknown, treatment processes and the disruption to life’s routines can be overwhelming. The experience is life altering, not only for the patient but also for family and close friends. For certain, life will never be the same for all involved.

While the initial focus and turmoil centers around the patient, the emotional impact on those who step up to be caregivers are too often overlooked. The dedication of time and resources to drive the patient to their frequent treatments, look in on them to monitor the therapies’ progress and extend their understanding and emotional support can be significant. Truly, no one fights cancer alone.

Being a caregiver can be very challenging. Many caregivers are close family and friends who are impacted equally by the diagnosis. The experience often creates a new role and unprecedented change for friend and family relationships. Feelings of confusion and stress accompany the changes in daily routines for all involved. Once relatively equal give and take relationships are now tipped more toward the cancer patient. Over an extended period of time this unbalanced set of emotional and physical needs can leave a caregiver feeling depressed and overwhelmed.

Educating yourself about the patient’s disease and the therapies and treatments they will be experiencing can help a caregiver cope with the challenges that lie ahead.  “I remember it was important for me to understand the kind of breast cancer my wife (Viola) had,” says Nathan Jones.  “It was triple-negative, so it was very aggressive. Because I had learned everything I could about Viola’s cancer, I understood that even though she wasn’t sick in bed or even in pain, her cancer was going to grow fast and we needed to be proactive.” Knowing and understanding is nearly always better and less stressful.

Many caregivers admit, usually in hindsight, that they took on too much. Accepting help from others and sharing feelings of being over taxed is never easy, but having someone assist with routine chores like cooking, cleaning, shopping and yardwork can relieve the pressure on a caregiver’s time, energy and feelings of inadequacy.  Focusing on your own needs, hopes, and desires can give you the strength to meet new challenges and understand conflicting feelings.

Support groups dedicated to caring for the caregiver are widely available in small group settings or online. Studies show that talking with others about what you’re dealing with is very important. It’s especially helpful when you feel overwhelmed or want to say things that you can’t say to your loved one with cancer.

Keeping a journal has been shown to help relieve negative feelings and stress. Share your journey with others who show interest.  Ken Owenson, caregiver and husband to a breast cancer patient says, “We find a lot of strength from sitting down with patients and giving them a place to vent some of their anxiety, and it also gives us a chance to clear our minds, too.  It’s not good to internalize it because that just makes it worse.”

For more information on how you can better manage your caregiver journey, contact the cancer care specialists at http://gettysburgcancercenter.com/contact-us/.

Early Detection and Treatment May Prevent Cervical Cancer

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Each year, an estimated 12,820 women in the United States will be diagnosed with some form of cervical cancer. Approximately 4,200 women die from the disease each year, and more than a quarter of a million women will live with the disease each year.  While the numbers can be daunting, when detected early, 91 percent of those diagnosed with cervical cancer will survive.

Long-lasting infections with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause almost all cases of cervical cancer. Normal cells of the cervix can gradually develop pre-cancerous changes.  These cells do not suddenly change into cancer. Instead, the normal cells of the cervix first gradually develop pre-cancerous changes that may turn into cancer.

The two main types of cervical cancer are squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma and represent the vast majority of cancer of the cervix. Only some of the women with pre-cancers of the cervix will develop cancer, and it may take several years for cervical pre-cancer to change to cervical cancer. For most women, pre-cancerous cells will go away without any treatment, but others will have their pre-cancers turn into invasive cancers.

Detecting and treating all cervical pre-cancers may prevent true cervical cancers. The Pap test (or Pap smear) and the HPV test may prevent cervical cancer by detecting pre-cancers before they can turn into an invasive form of cancer. During the past several decades, screening has reduced deaths from cervical cancer by finding the cancer early and treating it or preventing it from developing.

For women it can be very hard not to be exposed to HPV. Passed from one person to another during skin-to-skin contact with an infected area of the body, HPV can be spread rapidly and easily.

Available vaccines can protect against infection with the HPV subtypes most commonly linked to cancer. These vaccines help prevent pre-cancers and cancers of the cervix. The vaccines require a series of injections and may cause some mild side effects. The most common are is short-term redness, swelling, and soreness at the injection site.

The American Cancer Society recommends vaccinations for girls and boys beginning at age 11 or 12. HPV vaccination is also recommended for females 13 to 26 and males between the ages of 13 and 21. Vaccination at older ages is less effective in lowering cancer risk. No vaccine provides complete protection against all cancer-causing types of HPV, so routine cervical cancer screening is still recommended.

For more than 25 years, Gettysburg Cancer Center has been committed to providing cancer care in a community-based setting close to home. A leader in Oncology care across the region since 1989, Gettysburg Cancer Center’s cancer team provides screening and treatment options to women across York and Adams County.

For the latest information on early detection and treatments for cervical cancer, contact the Gettysburg Cancer Center.

The Value of a Community-Based Cancer Center

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The diagnosis of Cancer most often is accompanied by an intense emotional reaction, denial and a deep sense of dread and fear. The initial reaction is to seek the most information about the disease and the best treatment options available, no matter the cost of time and expense. The travel can impose a significant burden on cancer patients and their families already struggling with a significant life challenge.

In the historically famous but small community of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, The Gettysburg Cancer Center (GCC) is meeting the challenges of providing expert comprehensive medical oncology, radiation, diagnostic and radiology services to their community in one location, eliminating the need to travel to regional centers.  With access to expert clinicians and staff, GCC is able to offer quality and comprehensive care in one location.

Adams Diagnostic Imaging (ADI) is an integral part of the GCC. An ACR Certified Imaging Center, ADI is a fully accredited facility focused on providing comprehensive diagnostic services. Whether it is MRI, PET-Scan, Stand Alone CT, Nuclear Medicine, Ultra sound or XRAY, the professional staff at ADI has the latest diagnostic tools available to serve their patient’s specific and individualized needs at affordable prices for the insured and those who self-pay. Their Physicians and highly trained technologists are certified through the ARRT with comprehensive experience and knowledge in radiology. The facility provides flexible scheduling to better accommodate patients by offering longer time slots to improve the patients’ recovery experience.

Clinical trials are an important part of the constantly evolving process of bringing new treatments to market to improve patient outcomes. At GCC, clinical trials are conducted after exhaustive research and development in the lab and are offered to patients to treat or prevent the recurrence of the disease. The first site in the United States to enroll a patient in a pivotal oral chemotherapy trial for all patients with advanced malignancies, GCC clinical trials are some of the most advanced in the field of cancer treatment. The clinical research department at Gettysburg Cancer Center is on the cutting edge of cancer clinical trials.

For more than 25 years, Gettysburg Cancer Center has been committed to providing cancer care in a community-based setting, close to home. The Center works with Hershey Medical Center’s Surgical Oncology Department for all solid tumor board conferences and also collaborates with John Hopkins University and NHI for complicated patient diagnoses.

The Gettysburg Cancer Center prides itself on providing individualized treatment, utilizing the best technical approach, and recognizing each individual patient’s psychological, emotional, and spiritual needs during their journey with their illness and healing.

For more information about Gettysburg Cancer Center, visit www.gettysburgcancercenter.com.

Finding New Solutions in the Fight Against Cancer Through Research

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While the most overt cancer research news usually comes from efforts to derail the progression of the deadly disease, research into the development of alternative pathways to finding an ultimate solution to cancer often go unnoticed or fail to receive the same level of notice among the public. Advances are being made in new techniques to improve the effectiveness of traditional treatment protocols, the utilization of non-traditional or culturally specific treatment methods or identifying dietary or physical behaviors that may lead to increasing or decreasing the risk factors associated with cancer.

An innovative new treatment for an aggressive form of blood cancer has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. According to Mounzer Agha, Director of the Mario Lemiuex Center for Blood Cancers at Hillman Cancer Center, the cell based therapy produced a 51 percent remission rate among patients with a strain of lymphoma that didn’t respond well to traditional chemotherapy or radiation. “There was no treatment that could possibly put them into remission, so to get a 50 percent remission rate with this kind of treatment is a major accomplishment,” Agha said. This is a breakthrough for patients and physicians, according to Agha. The treatment is customized to each individual’s immune system. “This type of therapy represents a paradigm shift in the treatment of blood cancer and it will completely change the landscape of how we approach and treat blood cancers in the future,” he said.

In oriental medicine, treatment using acupuncture needles has been commonly practiced for thousands of years in the fields of treating musculoskeletal disorders, pain relief, and addiction relief. Recently, it has emerged as a promising treatment for brain diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, nausea, and vomiting, and studies are under way to use acupuncture to treat severe diseases. A research team lead by Professor Su-Il In, through joint research with Dr. Eunjoo Kim of Companion Diagnostics & Medical Technology Research Group at DGIST and Professor Bong-Hyo Lee’s research team from the College of Oriental Medicine at Daegu Haany University, has published a study showing that the molecular biologic indicators related to anticancer effects are changed only by the treatment of acupuncture. The research was published in the online edition of Scientific Reports, the sister journal of the globally renowned academic journal Nature. Professor Su-Il In said, “This research, which combines nanotechnology and oriental medicine technology, is a scientific study that shows the possibility of using acupuncture as a method to treat severe diseases such as cancer.”

For decades researchers have known that dietary issues can often be a factor in the incidence of cancer. In a paper published in the journal Nature Communications, researchers from VIB, a life sciences research institute, and Vrije University in Brussels found that a compound in sugar stimulates aggressive cancer cells and helps them to grow faster. Led by Johan Thevelein, a microbiologist with VIB, this research builds on what scientists already knew about the Warburg effect, where cancer cells rapidly break down sugar for energy and to fuel for further growth. While the research identifies a link between sugar and the aggressiveness of cancer cells, it doesn’t mean that eliminating sugar from one’s diet will eliminate the likelihood of getting cancer. “We have no evidence of this effect happens in healthy people,” Thevelein says, but “Reducing sugar intake during cancer treatment might help the system to overcome the cancer and it might facilitate the action of chemotherapy because it’s difficult to kill the cancer cells if they’re always activated [by sugar],” he says. “Providing sugar to cancer cells carries a greater risk of stimulating their aggressiveness.”

In Queensland, Australia scientist Georgia Chenevix-Trench has uncovered an additional 72 genetic markers that can indicate an increased likelihood that a patient may be more susceptible to getting cancer in their lifetime.  The discovery may lead to the development of a more definitive predictive test for breast cancer in women.

While most of us hope for quick and all-encompassing cure for cancer, the complexity and the infinite variety of cancer types indicate that a single solution is more than unlikely. The ultimate solutions will come from a combination a multitude of treatments and advances in early prediction and detection.

Gettysburg Cancer Center is actively involved with a consortium of doctors offering clinical trials for patients seeking alternative solutions and therapies.  For more information on the current clinical trials available, visit http://gettysburgcancercenter.com/patients/clinical-trials/.

The Best in Cancer Care Across the Community

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Healthcare and access to quality healthcare is a critical issue for individuals whether healthy or recently diagnosed with a life-threatening illness.  Most patients have experienced a private medical practice being merged into a large healthcare system and often don’t understand how that will impact their care.

While large specialized health centers can promise to offer the most advanced techniques, facilities and methods, they are usually located in large urban centers, often miles and driving hours from the patient’s home, requiring long and physically taxing commutes for frequent treatments. Although staffed with caring and competent professionals these mega centers can often feel overly clinical and crowded, giving the patient a sense of being just another number among many.

The best and most advanced treatment and care is becoming less centralized, allowing for advanced specialized care to be available within the patient’s own community, providing ease of care access and reducing the personal stresses often accompanying cancer therapy.

Gettysburg Cancer Center (GCC) has been a leader in Oncology Care in the Adams County region since 1989. For more than 25 years, the highly regarded and vastly experienced medical specialists have been committed to providing cancer care in a community-based setting close to their patient’s home. The all-encompassing oncology and hematology programs provide a complete range of diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care in an environment that recognizes the importance of treating not only the disease but the individual person behind the disease.

With Medical Oncology, Radiation Oncology, Diagnostic Imaging, access to the latest clinical trials as well as an onsite laboratory and pharmacy, Gettysburg Cancer Center truly offers comprehensive cancer care. Their compassionate and experienced staff takes pride in providing the best possible care and personal assistance to their patients and their patient’s families. Dr. Satish Shah, Principle Medical Oncologist and Hematologist at GCC says, “Our mission is to provide individualized treatment, utilizing the best technical approach.  We focus on providing the best treatment in the right environment so that our patients can focus on getting better.”

To learn more about how GCC’s is helping their cancer patients, click on http://gettysburgcancercenter.com/about-us/testimonials/.

Cancer Research: Not Always an Exact Science

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It is the question most frequently asked of doctors by patients who have just received a diagnosis of cancer, “Why me?” It is usually asked by those who thought they were living a healthy lifestyle and had little expectation of receiving the devastating news. Others may have been aware of near or distant family members who had a form of cancer.

While much progress has been made in the effort to understand multiple forms of cancer and the development of effective treatments, the answer to why some people get the disease and others do not remains predominately an elusive mystery. Cancer is known to be caused by changes, or mutations, to the DNA within cells that can cause the cell to stop its normal function and may allow a cell to become cancerous. Some faulty genes that increase the risk of cancer, known as inherited cancer genes, and genes that increase the risk of cancer called cancer susceptibility genes can be passed on from parent to child. But most of genetic mutations appear to occur after birth and aren’t inherited.

Environmental influences such as smoking, radiation, viruses, persistent exposure to cancer-causing chemicals (carcinogens), obesity, hormones, chronic inflammation and a lack of exercise has been proven to provide a more definitive answer to the “Why Me?”. Even with this accepted knowledge, some people who share one or more of these environment factors appear to avoid a cancer diagnosis altogether.

Why do some cancers spread and kill patients, while many remain docile?  Seeking the answer to this question has researchers redirecting their approach for answers from why some get cancer to why so many do not. Ruslan Medzhitov, an Immunobiologist at Yale, says “You can inject the same virus into different hosts and get vastly different responses.”

Diagnosis and treatment becomes art and science. Researchers continue to develop and identify predictive tests based on gene mutations and patterns of gene regulation.  These tests assist in targeting the right therapies and treatments for each patient.  Research related to the micro-environments in which the cancer lives and spreads will provide beneficial to the prevention and early detection of cancer.

The field of oncology remains focused on a holistic approach factoring in the environment, genetic factors, and physiology, in the hopes of finding a concrete, science based answer to the “Why Me?”

To learn more about the clinical trials and research that Gettysburg Cancer Center offers its patients, click here.

Support Groups Can Help Cancer Patients Regain Sense Of Normalcy

Receiving a cancer diagnosis can be one of the most traumatic and stressful moments of a lifetime. Often the unknown aspects of treatment and the potential outcomes can trigger strong emotional feelings of shock and anger. The sense of “why me” is often a common initial experience for many cancer victims when they are informed of their disease. The disruption of daily social patterns due to the regiment of treatments that follow diagnosis can add additional strain and stress to the patient and their immediate family members.

Daily routines, family roles and future plans will be determined by a regiment of treatments and medications that often pose additional physical symptoms and challenges to everyday living. The support of family and friends during this process is critical to help the patient regain a sense of normalcy and maintain emotional stability and can provide assistance to reduce distress that can play a critical role in determining the patient’s clinical outcome.

Formal support groups can help people with cancer feel less depressed and anxious about their disease, help them feel more hopeful and enable them to manage their emotions better. Support groups can be peer-led (facilitated by individual group members), professional-led (by trained counselors) or informational, led by doctors and professional facilitators who focus on providing disease related information. Some groups will be organized around the type of cancer, age of the patient or the stag of the disease. Some groups are also available for family members and care givers because a cancer diagnosis doesn’t only affect the patient but also their family and friends.

“Support groups can be effective in many ways,” says Claire J. Casselman, Social Work Coordinator and Complementary Therapies Clinician, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center in Ann Arbor, Michigan. “Meeting and talking with other people whose lives are affected by cancer can create a sense of community or commonness that helps relieve the stress of isolation that many people experience.”

For those who find the formal group setting uncomfortable or cumbersome, online support groups can offer group forums to those who live in rural areas, who are too ill to attend a meeting in person, those who are without access to transportation or patients who seek a certain amount of anonymity. Most online support groups are available 24-hours a day. When looking to the internet for a support group, a certain amount of due diligence should be exercised to verify their credibility.

Often the most effective emotional support comes from those who provide the care. As a teenager in 2015, Chandler Banko’s was diagnosed with advanced, stage 2 Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. A positive and outgoing personality, Chandler found treatment and personal emotional support he needed at the Gettysburg Cancer Center in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. At Gettysburg Cancer Center, he found experienced professionals who were dedicated to treating not only the science of his disease but the personal emotional conditions that often accompany a cancer diagnosis and regiment of treatment. Chandler says of his battle with cancer, “No One Fights Alone.”